New Seven Wonders - Cities

Recently, I've been obsessed with bucket lists and whether or not I agree with the findings of votes (or committees) who decide what goes on these rolls of honour. When I was looking at The Seven Wonders of the World, the 'New Seven Wonders - Cities' list caught my attention. The Swiss Foundation managed vote suggested: Durban, South Africa, Vigan (Philippines), Havana (Cuba), Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia), Beirut (Lebanon), Doha (Qatar), La Paz (Bolivia).

This is a weird and eclectic collection. Maybe it's designed to be alternative. They're all interesting cities. Well, nearly all. Durban I just don't get. Nice beaches, theme parks and a lot of crime. Though it has been renovated, since I was there, in 2003. Give me Cape Town any time. Vigan's a gorgeous colonial city, but there are plenty of those, especially in Latin America. I'm not sure it stands out.

Havana has colonial architecture and more modern communist era buildings. And that mid last century vibe. La Paz: witch's market, colonial architecture and that wonderful gondola transport system. Beirut: 'The 'Paris of the East', a mix of religious buildings, pavement cafes and a pretty corniche. But lots of renovation, still ongoing, to repair war damage. Doha - ultra modern, with a tiny old souq and falconry area. I'll take Abu Dhabi instead. (Dubai is too large and artificial.) Kuala Lumpur, again a mix of colonial and modern. But, it's not my favourite Asian city.

What criteria do you use to choose a favourite (or Bucket List) city? I suppose for me its a mixture of beauty - aesthetic appeal, general vibe, interesting things to do and see (galleries, unusual buildings, monuments, sculptures, living history and lovely things to eat.

Here's my list. There's no way I can stick to just seven, so I've come up with a cunning plan. I'm going to incorporate the latest fashion for dupes, or duplicates (usually at lower cost). The idea annoys me instantly, of course, Not least as it's a silly word which implies you've fallen for some con trick. No place has a duplicate. But some are more similar than others...

Beautiful Cities - Venice

Let's start with beauty. It might be a cliche, but it has to be Venice. It wasn't love at first time. The first visit was classically crowded and smelly. But the second time I went, in the Time of Covid, Venice was bereft of tourists. I actually got to see what the city looked like. It was utterly gorgeous, sublime, despite the ghoulish Don't Look Now images, which intrude, as I wander the canals. There's absolutely no duplicate for Venice, but there's always Florence (or Bologna, or Milan, or the cities of Sicily. Not to mention Rome.

Feasts of European Architecture - Vienna (Budapest and Prague)

Staying with European cities which are historically and architecturally interesting. All of the European capitals (and many other cities, such as Munich) warrant a visit. but three cities on rivers stand out here, the first two, on the Danube. It's hard to beat Vienna, the capital of Austria, if you like somewhere stylish to wander around. Baroque buildings, palaces, museums and gardens to admire, The Prater Park (Harry Lime on the wheel) and a plethora of coffee shops. And nip up the Danube, in a boat, to Bratislava, a pocket city that's a mini Vienna, just over the border, in Slovakia. Two for the price of one.

Further east on the Danube, Budapest, capital of Hungary, makes for a great stay, with the old and new cities, again plenty of interesting architecture, (Disneyesque crenellations), vibrant edgy quarters and lovely food.

Prague, capital of Czechia, is closer to Bratislava (for some time they were in the same country) but it's on the Vltava River. The waterway divides the city, as it does in Budapest and again it's a veritable feast of architecture, right through to modern day and The Dancing House, castles, museums and eateries.

Colonial Cities - Cartagena, (St Louis, Granada, Antigua, Willemstad)

Further afield, but still with architecture, it's generally the Spanish colonial cities, which delight the eye. Cartagena in Colombia, has to take the crown. But sadly it's on the cruise circuit and the streets are too often too crowded to properly enjoy. Otherwise, head to Latin America. Granada, in Nicaragua is gorgeous (thrown in Leon too), Antigua in Guatemala (not the island) is another strong contender (go during Easter week for the celebrations and carpets of flowers). I've already mentioned Havana and Vigan.

French colonial atmosphere - try the Caribbean or Vietnam. But it's strong in Africa, perhaps most notable in Saint Louis, in Senegal, the old capital of French West Africa. It's a satisfying contrast, to the bush and rainforest, with its shabby chic and overflowing markets. My other pick is Willemstad, in Curacao, for its (almost toy town) clusters of bright pastel painted Dutch colonial houses.

All of these cities are on the UNESCO World Heritage list, except for Granada, which has been hovering on the tentative list, since 2003

Culturally Enchanting Cities - Samarkand (Esfahan, Varanasi, Fez)

Cities which draw you into their culture through their beauty and ambience are perhaps my favourite. I've chosen Samarkand, in Uzbekistan. The Registan ensemble of Islamic buildings is an absolute must see. It's also home to other glorious mosques and complexes, as well as ancient Samarkand. (Don't miss Bukhara and Khiva while you're there.)

Esfahan, in Iran, offers a very different Islamic experience, with its souks, palaces, squares and amazing domes. Fez, in Morocco, has one of the most authentic and winding souks in the Arab world, though the sour smell (some would say stink), in the world renowned tanneries may prevent you from staying in that section overlong.

For an unforgettable spiritual experience, then it's Varanasi. Like much of India, it's uncomfortably crowded, dirty and overwhelming at times. But take a boat trip on the Ganges, watch the hugely spiritual cremation ceremonies on the ghats, take in the astonishing light, at dawn or dusk, and listen to the inspiring music.

Cities With Beautiful Settings - Cape Town, (Sydney, Rio de Janeiro, Vancouver, San Francisco, Tel Aviv)

CIties voted to have the most beautiful setting almost inevitably have natural harbours. Cape Town, South Africa, Sydney, Australia, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Vancouver, Canada, and San Francisco, U.S.A, all qualify here. And they all regularly feature on best city lists and best places in the world to live.

Except for maybe Cape Town, as South Africa still has a reputation for crime and violence. But I'm still going to make it my number one. The beaches are gorgeous, the food and architecture are great, there's a huge amount to see in the vicinity, from wildlife to wine estates, the view of the Twelve Apostles backdrop is stunning and Table Mountain is iconic, from above, or below.

I'm also going to sneak in Tel Aviv-Yafo. It may not have the same mountain scenery, and only a small harbour, but The Big Orange, in Israel, has a long string of lovely beaches, the old city at Yafo (Jaffa) and plenty of cafes, museums and an extraordinary amount of Bauhaus architecture, in The White City area, to explore.

Mega Cities - New York (Chicago, Buenos Aires, Istanbul, Singapore)

And then there are the mega cities, the ones which offer history, diversity and an endless list of sights and experiences and one visit just won't do. New York often tops best city in the world lists for good reason. We get to interact with all those landmarks we've seen on TV. And there are some great panoramas and fabulous restaurants. Though I've never rated the shopping.

Chicago is another close contender, with its 1930s vibe. Further south, Buenos Aires is another city you can walk for days, taking in the barrios from up market Palermo to La Boca, home of the tango.

Istanbul is mostly in Europe (it's the largest city of that continent), but it spills over the Bosphorus into Asia, making it unique and exciting. And Singapore, the city state, which continually reinvents itself: China Town, Little India, The Bay Gardens. It's one huge theme park. I'm not sure if I like it, but there's plenty to do.

The City That Has it All - London

So many contenders. Ghent, in Belgium, some of the Dutch cities. I really wanted to include Lisbon (and Porto). You may have noticed that I've missed out Paris. It's undoubtedly a lovely city, in parts, but its also very one dimensional and urban in other areas. Romantic? I'm not sure. And I've never had a good meal there. I think it's had very good PR.

But one city has to get the final mention and that's London. The place of my birth frequently tops polls for best city in the world, and with reason. It's historic, once the largest city on earth, vibrant, hugely diverse, both in terms of population and architecture and city areas. The food is great (if expensive) and you never run out of new things to see and do. And, apologies, that makes eight.

What would your Cities of the World Bucket List be?

Kolkata, India

I have an ambiguous relationship with India. I’m sucked back in to further visits, drawn by the exotica, the colour and the fact that it is fascinatingly utterly different to anywhere else. It’s also, always,  a challenge to my resilience and patience. This trip begins in the most unpromising fashion, as I have dinner with the wrong tour group (mine haven't arrived yet - the plane is late) and I manage to acquire an upset stomach before I’ve even met the other participants. I think it was probably the cocktail in the hotel bar that did it. I fear the barman used raw egg to froth it up.

I catch up with the rest of the group touring Kolkata in the afternoon. They're  not as much fun as last night's group. I'm wondering if it's too late to change my plans. Kolkata is possibly the most famous city in India, it’s definitely the biggest, dirtiest, most sprawling and chaotic. The street outside is filthy and there are a small herd of painted sheep nibbling at the heaps of rubbish.

Kali Festival

We start with the colourful flower market and the clay modeller's village. The potters and papier-mâché artists here spend all year creating a wealth of images and idols for the annual festivals and, as the Kali festival is just finishing, there are ongoing ceremonies and pujas in the streets and at the Kali Temple. Some of the brightly coloured and richly attired idols have accomplished the necessary goals and are now being dumped ceremoniously in the River Hoogli.

Colonial Calcutta

Also on the agenda, of course, are visits to buildings associated with Calcutta’s colonial past, the capital of British India. We visit the Victoria Memorial Building (now a museum), grey Dalhousie Square and the Mother Teresa Home and Orphanage. I didn't know this famous nun was Albanian. (In fact it’s more complicated than that - she was born in Skopje (now the capital of the Republic of Macedonia), then part of the Kosovo Vilayet of the Ottoman Empire). And the Black Hole of course, in Fort William. Metropolitan Building is the number 46.26 building on Chowringhee Road in Kolkata near Esplanade. Formerly known as the Whiteway Laidlaw department store, it was a famous department store in Calcutta during the British Rule in India

Temples in Kolkata

Perhaps most interesting is Kolkata's wonderfully intricate pastel coloured Jain temple, the Shri Trimurti Digamber Jain Temple, at Susner.

Bodh Gaya

Then, onto the train for the first time and west, to Gaya city and the important Buddhist pilgrimage site of Bodh Gaya on the plains of the eastern Ganges. You can’t see an awful lot out of the windows, as they are covered in grime, but the sense of chaos and confusion pervades. Local trains chunter by, stuffed to the gunwales with live torsos hanging out of the windows and doors and clinging on to the roof. No-one takes any notice of crossing gates. Pedestrians  keep moving until the train is bearing down upon them, horn blaring loudly.

Bodh Gaya is the site of the tree under which Prince Siddhartha Gautama achieved enlightenment over 2600 years ago, so it is besieged by pilgrims. The actual Bodhi, (tree where the Buddha sat, for 49 days), is dead. A prominent plaque marks the spot, but a descendant, grown from a cutting, replaces it. This one, in its turn, is so old it has to be propped  up with wooden staves. I’ve lost count of the places I’ve visited elsewhere that claim to have trees grown from cuttings of the original.

Adjacent is the majestic Mahbodhi Temple, built in the 6th century AD, to replace the original temple erected by the emperor Ashoka in the third century BC. This remarkable temple, topped by a towering 50 metre high spire, was declared a World Heritage Site in 2002 and is one of the oldest brick built Buddhist temples in India. We also visit a 25 metre high Great Buddha Statue, financed by the Japanese. I’ve seen more than a few big Buddhas now, but this one is impressive.

There's also a lake, where Lord Buddha spent time after his enlightenment. A statue marks the spot where the king of the serpents (Naga) rose up from the water to protect Gautama from a severe storm created by Mara (the god of chaos), who wanted to disturb his meditation.

Varanasi, India

Another train journey, to the fabled holy city of Varanasi, which is utterly intoxicating. The schizophrenic nature of India is totally to the fore here, with pungent scents, amazing colour, light and atmosphere. It’s believed to be one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities on earth and is one of the most venerated Hindu pilgrimage centres in India. Countless thousands come here  to the banks of the sacred River Ganges, to  perform puja and  cleanse themselves at its myriad temples and ghats. The Hindus believe that this is where the material and spiritual worlds meet.

Varanasi by rickshaw is an adventure, a teeming vibrant mass, which we edge around, within an inch of our lives.

On the Ganges

In Varanasi, we have two boat rides along the sacred river, one for sunset and one for sunrise. The riverbanks, teeming with colour, are jam-packed with pilgrims and our boat is an excellent place to watch (from a respectful distance) as the local priests perform the revered Aarti ceremonies, with mystical singing and chanting. The stairs (now thronging) down to the river are called ghats. Dashashwamedh Ghat is the main ghat in Varanasi, by the Vishwanath Temple. Two Hindu legends are associated with it: according to one, Brahma created it to welcome Shiva, and in another, Brahma sacrificed ten horses during the Dasa-Ashwamedha yajna performed here. Ahilyabai Ghat is named for Queen Ahilyabai. This is where most religious bathing rituals are performed.

Further down we can see the cremation rituals and feel the heat of the roaring fires, adding to the glow of the sun: the golden light bathing the ghats is glorious. We are informed that there are several circumstances – such as snakebite and pregnancy – where the dead are not allowed to be burned. On these occasions the bodies are embalmed and thrown into the river. It is at  this point that I notice the cloth wrapped figures bobbing in the water around us.


We make a short side trip north, to another of the four holiest Buddhist sites, Sarnath, the cradle of Buddhism, The massive Dhamek Stupa here marks the precise location where the Buddha preached his first sermon, after his enlightenment, to his first five disciples, and where all five eventually became fully liberated. Here, there is probably the most expansive collection of Buddhist temples and monasteries on earth. It was destroyed by Muslim armies, but two stupas and some towers have been restored, after it was rediscovered by British archaeologists in the middle years of the nineteenth century.

Agra, India

Agra, built by Emperor Akbar, was once the capital of the mighty Mughal Empire. It has a huge red sandstone fort and 20 metre high walls to protect its opulent buildings and treasures: tombs, towers, mosques and a huge fort.

The Taj Mahal is much hyped, but it doesn’t disappoint - even though this is the second time I’ve visited. It is truly an exquisite building. It required the labour of 20,000 men and is estimated to have cost something in the region of three million rupees (at today's prices that equates to around $70 million). Shah Jehan, Akbar's grandson, built it as a tomb for his wife, Mumtaz, and then was overthrown by his son. It’s poignant to think of the imprisoned shah locked up across the river, in the fort - so near and yet so far.

Again, The Taj Mahal has to be toured both at sunset and sunset, for the rosy light and the atmospheric  photos. Little men pop up to lead us to the best spots for pictures - for a suitable reward, of course. And visiting Indians queue up to take our photos and have shots taken with us.

The hotel is the same one I stayed in on my first visit a very long time ago. I don't think they have done anything to it since. We are stuck in the lift for a while - it's not a good experience. Neither is tour leader Rafeequi's announcement that I can come to his room any time. It's conveniently next to mine.

Fatehpur Sikri

There’s a side trip (again covering old ground) to the nearby abandoned city of Fatehpur Sikri, lying to the west of Agra and, for a brief time, yet another capital of the Mughals under Akbar the Great. Founded in 1569 it was only inhabited for 16 years later –no-one is quite sure why it was abandoned. There's a pachisi board in the courtyard. The Indian equivalent of chess, except that, the emperor used slave girls as pieces.

It’s brown and ghostly and the deserted arched buildings and squares are interesting. They key sights are the
Panch Mahal, the five tiered place surrounded by water and the Diwan-E-Khas (The Hall of Private Audience), used by Akbar. The highlight (as on my last visit), is the old man with flowing grey locks and beard who dives from the ramparts into a tiny algae covered tank many feet below. As long as he can collect enough rupees from the watching crowds to make the plunge worthwhile.

Delhi, Capital of India

I’ve been to Delhi several times now. It’s not my favourite place, but it improves on each visit. Fewer people are living on the streets and it is less overwhelming than it was. It's a shame, however, that the snake charmers  and floating fakirs round the fort have all been moved on. It's much less atmospheric. Most of the main thoroughfares are blocked by roadworks today, causing additional delay - preparations for the forthcoming Commonwealth Games are in full swing.

More schizophrenia. We have the colonial grandeur of New Delhi; the capital of India, the creation of the British Raj of the 1930s. Its streets are filled with a rich collection of the architectural creations of Edward Lutyens. first, the huge memorial arch of the India Gate a testament to the 90,000 Indian troops who lost their lives during WWI and along the Northwest Frontier. Next, the Indian Parliament, and Humayun's Tomb, a 16th century mausoleum famed for its Mughal architecture. Alongside, is the Isa Khan Tomb

We also visit the towering Qutub Minar, a spectacular thirteenth century edifice made of sandstone and marble and glowing in the mellow sunshine. It was built  to mark the arrival of the Muslim sultans and soars some 73 metres above the city. It's an enormous complex of ruins, including the mammoth unfinished Alai Minar.

Then, a tour of Old Delhi by metro and cycle rickshaw. This old city, is a magnificent fusion of grandiose architecture and vibrant chaos, centred around the Chandni Chowk Bazaar, an eclectic cacophony of noise, colour and deafening barter. The spectacular Jama Masjid Mosque (I have to don a flowery hospital type robe to cover myself up before I’m allowed in) is the largest in India. It was built by Shah Jahan.

Next, a minor kerfuffle as Rafeequi abandons us, amidst remonstrations. He says that only a morning tour is included. If we want to see anything else here we can do it ourselves. He won't take us in the Red Fort, even though we have been to the Drum House (Naubat Khana), at the entrance. Scottish Ken takes over, with his map, and we navigate back to the Red Fort through the bazaar, without getting lost too many times. The Red Fort was the home of the Mogul emperors, when Sha Jahan moved the capital from Agra to Delhi.

Time to do some exploring on my own. You can't miss the gargantuan, bustling and impressive Shri Laxmi Narayan Hindu Temple (Birla Mandir). Laxminarayan refers to Vishnu, , also known as Narayan, when he is with his consort Lakshmi. And then a complete contrast with the serenely beautiful Bahai Lotus Temple.

And another festival to celebrate. It’s Diwali when I first arrive and firecrackers and loud parties keep us all awake, well into the small hours.

Toy Train to Shimla

More trains – this time  to Kalka, just to the north of Chandigarh. There are small mice running up and down the carriage, feeding on biscuit crumbs, strewn under the metal seats. From here we transfer to a narrow gauge track and continue to Shimla on the legendary 'Toy Train' (Shimla and the train were made famous in the TV series Indian Summers). Shimla is where the British went to the mountains to escape the heat. The train negotiates a meandering journey of some 93 kilometres, ascending over 1600 metres through 103 tunnels.

The stations are a dainty blue and white decorated with elephants. Locals try to sell us cookies and samosas at the stations. wave at us from the front carriages, as the train chugs round the many bends, and risk their lives hanging out of the windows to pose for photographs.

Shimla is pleasantly cool and much as expected. Views of snow capped mountains in the distance. The main square is known as Scandal Point, though no-one is sure if there's any truth in the various lurid explanations for the name. There's a monkey temple and the Vice-Roy's Lodge to visit. And there are shopping streets, signposted, Upper Mall, Middle Bazaar and Lower Bazaar. As the trip dossier says: ‘the mock Tudor architecture presents a quite surreal imitation of Old England, against the magnificent backdrop of the Himalaya’. The hotel is a little surreal  too. The swimming pool is full of rubble.

Amritsar, India

Finally, an afternoon train to the Sikh’s holy city of Amritsar in the Northern Punjab. Its magnificent Golden Temple has a dome, covered in over 700 kilograms of pure gold. Yet another festival - I’ve been very lucky - it’s the founder of Sikhism, Guru Nanak’s birthday. This is one of the holiest Sikh cities, home to the Sikh holy book, The Guru Granth Sahib. The entire work is read in 48 hours at the celebrations.

There are parades through the streets and the grounds of the temple are thronging with the bobbing orange heads of Sikhs on pilgrimage. The temple is strewn with lights and, despite all the visitors, and having been the scene of several historical outrages, is incredibly serene and welcoming. The largest kitchen in the world, attached to the temple, is also fascinating - all those volunteers preparing food and all those chapattis rolling off the machines.


Amritsar has not been without bloodshed. The memorial garden at Jalianwalabagh commemorates the 1919 massacre of Indian protestors by General Dyer. And there was another massacre in the temple itself, when Indira Gandhi sent the Indian army in to quell protests in 1984,


A comedic interlude before I depart is the excursion to the Wagah Border with Pakistan to see the 'Flag Lowering' ceremony. The cockaded border guards for both India and Pakistan make a competitive and overly-dramatic display of closing the border gates each day. It’s like watching John Cleese at the Ministry of Silly Walks.

Read more about India here.

Now I'm going on to Nepal and Bhutan

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