A Brief History of India

  • India is home to one of the oldest civilisations in the world. Traces of hominoid activity suggest that the area now known as India, was inhabited approximately 250,000 years ago.
  • The Netherlands, England, France, and Denmark-Norway all established trading posts in India in the early seventeenth century. As the Mughal Empire disintegrated in the early 18th century many relatively weak and unstable Indian states which emerged were increasingly open to manipulation by the Europeans, through dependent Indian rulers.
  • In the later eighteenth century, Great Britain and France struggled for dominance over India, partly through proxy Indian rulers, but also by direct military intervention. The defeat of the formidable Indian ruler Tipu Sultan in 1799 marginalised the French influence. This was followed by a rapid expansion of British power, through the greater part of the Indian subcontinent, in the early nineteenth century.
  • By the middle of the century the British had already gained direct or indirect control over almost all of India. British India, consisting of the directly-ruled British presidencies and provinces, contained the most populous and valuable parts of the British Empire. So, it soon became known as "The Jewel in the British Crown". Russia's aspirations to won this prize led to continued conflict in Afghanistan and a set of political manoeuvres known as The Great Game.
  • In 1947, India gained its independence and was partitioned into the Dominion of India and the Dominion of Pakistan,. Pakistan was created as a homeland for colonial India's Muslims.
  • Tensions between India and Pakistan have continued since partition. The main point of conflict is Kashmir, which both sides claim, even though Kashmir itself would prefer to be independent. It has instead been subjected to a line (Asia's Berlin Wall) drawn through it and constant incursions on both sides. Both Pakistan and India are focused again on border issues and access. India would be happy to weaken Pakistani links with China, if it could close their small but important border. Meanwhile, they have more than 2,000 miles of shared border, over which to maintain hostilities.

Facts and Factoids

  • India is is now the country with the largest population in the world. (Over 1.4 billion).
  • India is the world’s largest democracy.
  • India has three of the largest cities in the world: Delhi, Mumbai (Bombay) and Kolkata (Calcutta). According to the UN, Delhi is now the second-largest urban agglomeration in the world, with over 22.65 million people; it is only surpassed by Tokyo. Mumbai is ranked seventh and Calcutta tenth.
  • India has more linguistic diversity than any other large country. There are over 1,000 languages, but many overlap and are hard to define. Official languages are Hindi and English.
  • India has the second (or third) highest population of Muslims in the world. Even though fewer than 15% of Indians are Muslim, the country's enormous population means that it outranks all Muslim-majority countries, except Indonesia and possibly Pakistan. (There are almost exactly the same numbers of Muslims in Pakistan as in India).
  • The majority religion in India is Hinduism (79%). Minority religions include Christianity, (2.3%) Sikhism, (1.7% ) Buddhism ().7% ) and to Jainism. (0.4% )
  • India was once an island. It broke off from an ancient supercontinent referred to as Gondwanaland by paleogeographers (named after Gondwana, a forested area of central India). Then it moved slowly northwards, from modern day Madagascar, to join Asia.
  • Bollywood, the film industry of Mumbai, produces about 200 films a year. However, more than 1,100 movies are produced, on average, each year overall in India - that's slightly ahead of Nigeria, twice as many as the American film industry and ten times as many as Britain produces.
  • India was referred to, as Golden Bird, in ancient times, when the country was known for its wealth and prosperity.

Is India a Poor Country?

From being a comparatively poor country at Independence in 1947, India has become a fast-growing major economy. It's a hub for worldwide information technology services, and plenty of call centres. Labour is cheap.India has a space programme which includes several planned or completed extra-terrestrial missions and is a nuclear weapons state, ranking high in military expenditure. It has ongoing and long term disputes over Kashmir with its neighbours, Pakistan and China.

Indian movies, music, and spiritual teachings play an increasing role in global culture. India has therefore substantially reduced its rate of poverty. However, it still faces the challenges of gender inequality, child malnutrition, and rising levels of air pollution. The extreme poverty rate in India is now down to 3%. but that is still nearly 50 million people.

Is India Safe to Visit?

There are more road deaths in India than any other country in the world. Officially, about 115,000 people die on Indian roads each year - though a recent British Medical Journal study suggests that the true number of fatalities is closer to 200,000.

What to See and Do in India?

I have a love- hate relationship with India. It is an endlessly fascinating assault on the senses: colourful, vibrant, and wonderfully spiritual. The festivals are joyful and amazing. the landscapes temples and architecture are astonishing

The crowds and disregard for personal space are wearing, the poverty is difficult to deal with, (though numbers of people living on the streets appear to have diminished dramatically over recent years). The treatment of women as second class citizens is still a huge challenge in many places.

I have visited ten times and have still only seen a small part of India’s incredible diversity.

Kolkata, India

I have an ambiguous relationship with India. I’m sucked back in to further visits, drawn by the exotica, the colour and the fact that it is fascinatingly utterly different to anywhere else. It’s also, always,  a challenge to my resilience and patience. This trip begins in the most unpromising fashion, as I have dinner with the wrong tour group (mine haven't arrived yet - the plane is late) and I manage to acquire an upset stomach before I’ve even met the other participants. I think it was probably the cocktail in the hotel bar that did it. I fear the barman used raw egg to froth it up.

I catch up with the rest of the group touring Kolkata in the afternoon. They're  not as much fun as last night's group. I'm wondering if it's too late to change my plans. Kolkata is possibly the most famous city in India, it’s definitely the biggest, dirtiest, most sprawling and chaotic. The street outside is filthy and there are a small herd of painted sheep nibbling at the heaps of rubbish.

Kali Festival

We start with the colourful flower market and the clay modeller's village. The potters and papier-mâché artists here spend all year creating a wealth of images and idols for the annual festivals and, as the Kali festival is just finishing, there are ongoing ceremonies and pujas in the streets and at the Kali Temple. Some of the brightly coloured and richly attired idols have accomplished the necessary goals and are now being dumped ceremoniously in the River Hoogli.

Colonial Calcutta

Also on the agenda, of course, are visits to buildings associated with Calcutta’s colonial past, the capital of British India. We visit the Victoria Memorial Building (now a museum), grey Dalhousie Square and the Mother Teresa Home and Orphanage. I didn't know this famous nun was Albanian. (In fact it’s more complicated than that - she was born in Skopje (now the capital of the Republic of Macedonia), then part of the Kosovo Vilayet of the Ottoman Empire). And the Black Hole of course, in Fort William. Metropolitan Building is the number 46.26 building on Chowringhee Road in Kolkata near Esplanade. Formerly known as the Whiteway Laidlaw department store, it was a famous department store in Calcutta during the British Rule in India

Temples in Kolkata

Perhaps most interesting is Kolkata's wonderfully intricate pastel coloured Jain temple, the Shri Trimurti Digamber Jain Temple, at Susner.

Bodh Gaya

Then, onto the train for the first time and west, to Gaya city and the important Buddhist pilgrimage site of Bodh Gaya on the plains of the eastern Ganges. You can’t see an awful lot out of the windows, as they are covered in grime, but the sense of chaos and confusion pervades. Local trains chunter by, stuffed to the gunwales with live torsos hanging out of the windows and doors and clinging on to the roof. No-one takes any notice of crossing gates. Pedestrians  keep moving until the train is bearing down upon them, horn blaring loudly.

Bodh Gaya is the site of the tree under which Prince Siddhartha Gautama achieved enlightenment over 2600 years ago, so it is besieged by pilgrims. The actual Bodhi, (tree where the Buddha sat, for 49 days), is dead. A prominent plaque marks the spot, but a descendant, grown from a cutting, replaces it. This one, in its turn, is so old it has to be propped  up with wooden staves. I’ve lost count of the places I’ve visited elsewhere that claim to have trees grown from cuttings of the original.

Adjacent is the majestic Mahbodhi Temple, built in the 6th century AD, to replace the original temple erected by the emperor Ashoka in the third century BC. This remarkable temple, topped by a towering 50 metre high spire, was declared a World Heritage Site in 2002 and is one of the oldest brick built Buddhist temples in India. We also visit a 25 metre high Great Buddha Statue, financed by the Japanese. I’ve seen more than a few big Buddhas now, but this one is impressive.

There's also a lake, where Lord Buddha spent time after his enlightenment. A statue marks the spot where the king of the serpents (Naga) rose up from the water to protect Gautama from a severe storm created by Mara (the god of chaos), who wanted to disturb his meditation.

Varanasi, India

Another train journey, to the fabled holy city of Varanasi, which is utterly intoxicating. The schizophrenic nature of India is totally to the fore here, with pungent scents, amazing colour, light and atmosphere. It’s believed to be one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities on earth and is one of the most venerated Hindu pilgrimage centres in India. Countless thousands come here  to the banks of the sacred River Ganges, to  perform puja and  cleanse themselves at its myriad temples and ghats. The Hindus believe that this is where the material and spiritual worlds meet.

Varanasi by rickshaw is an adventure, a teeming vibrant mass, whcih we edge around, within an inch of our lives.

On the Ganges

In Varanasi, we have two boat rides along the sacred river, one for sunset and one for sunrise. The riverbanks, teeming with colour, are jam-packed with pilgrims and our boat is an excellent place to watch (from a respectful distance) as the local priests perform the revered Aarti ceremonies, with mystical singing and chanting. The stairs (now thronging) down to the river are called ghats. Dashashwamedh Ghat is the main ghat in Varanasi, by the Vishwanath Temple. Two Hindu legends are associated with it: according to one, Brahma created it to welcome Shiva, and in another, Brahma sacrificed ten horses during the Dasa-Ashwamedha yajna performed here. Ahilyabai Ghat is named for Queen Ahilyabai. This is where most religious bathing rituals are performed.

Further down we can see the cremation rituals and feel the heat of the roaring fires, adding to the glow of the sun: the golden light bathing the ghats is glorious. We are informed that there are several circumstances – such as snakebite and pregnancy – where the dead are not allowed to be burned. On these occasions the bodies are embalmed and thrown into the river. It is at  this point that I notice the cloth wrapped figures bobbing in the water around us.

Sarnath

We make a short side trip north, to another of the four holiest Buddhist sites, Sarnath, the cradle of Buddhism, The massive Dhamek Stupa here marks the precise location where the Buddha preached his first sermon, after his enlightenment, to his first five disciples, and where all five eventually became fully liberated. Here, there is probably the most expansive collection of Buddhist temples and monasteries on earth. It was destroyed by Muslim armies, but two stupas and some towers have been restored, after it was rediscovered by British archaeologists in the middle years of the nineteenth century.

Agra, India

Agra, built by Emperor Akbar, was once the capital of the mighty Mughal Empire. It has a huge red sandstone fort and 20 metre high walls to protect its opulent buildings and treasures: tombs, towers, mosques and a huge fort.

The Taj Mahal is much hyped, but it doesn’t disappoint - even though this is the second time I’ve visited. It is truly an exquisite building. It required the labour of 20,000 men and is estimated to have cost something in the region of three million rupees (at today's prices that equates to around $70 million). Shah Jehan, Akbar's grandson, built it as a tomb for his wife, Mumtaz, and then was overthrown by his son. It’s poignant to think of the imprisoned shah locked up across the river, in the fort - so near and yet so far.

Again, The Taj Mahal has to be toured both at sunset and sunset, for the rosy light and the atmospheric  photos. Little men pop up to lead us to the best spots for pictures - for a suitable reward, of course. And visiting Indians queue up to take our photos and have shots taken with us.

The hotel is the same one I stayed in on my first visit a very long time ago. I don't think they have done anything to it since. We are stuck in the lift for a while - it's not a good experience. Neither is tour leader Rafeequi's announcement that I can come to his room any time. It's conveniently next to mine.

Fatehpur Sikri

There’s a side trip (again covering old ground) to the nearby abandoned city of Fatehpur Sikri, lying to the west of Agra and, for a brief time, yet another capital of the Mughals under Akbar the Great. Founded in 1569 it was only inhabited for 16 years later –no-one is quite sure why it was abandoned. There's a pachisi board in the courtyard. The Indian equivalent of chess, except that, the emperor used slave girls as pieces.

It’s brown and ghostly and the deserted arched buildings and squares are interesting. They key sights are the
Panch Mahal, the five tiered place surrounded by water and the Diwan-E-Khas (The Hall of Private Audience), used by Akbar. The highlight (as on my last visit), is the old man with flowing grey locks and beard who dives from the ramparts into a tiny algae covered tank many feet below. As long as he can collect enough rupees from the watching crowds to make the plunge worthwhile.

Delhi, Capital of India

I’ve been to Delhi several times now. It’s not my favourite place, but it improves on each visit. Fewer people are living on the streets and it is less overwhelming than it was. It's a shame, however, that the snake charmers  and floating fakirs round the fort have all been moved on. It's much less atmospheric. Most of the main thoroughfares are blocked by roadworks today, causing additional delay - preparations for the forthcoming Commonwealth Games are in full swing.

More schizophrenia. We have the colonial grandeur of New Delhi; the capital of India, the creation of the British Raj of the 1930s. Its streets are filled with a rich collection of the architectural creations of Edward Lutyens. first, the huge memorial arch of the India Gate a testament to the 90,000 Indian troops who lost their lives during WWI and along the Northwest Frontier. Next, the Indian Parliament, and Humayun's Tomb, a 16th century mausoleum famed for its Mughal architecture. Alongside, is the Isa Khan Tomb

We also visit the towering Qutub Minar, a spectacular thirteenth century edifice made of sandstone and marble and glowing in the mellow sunshine. It was built  to mark the arrival of the Muslim sultans and soars some 73 metres above the city. It's an enormous complex of ruins, including the mammoth unfinished Alai Minar.

Then, a tour of Old Delhi by metro and cycle rickshaw. This old city, is a magnificent fusion of grandiose architecture and vibrant chaos, centred around the Chandni Chowk Bazaar, an eclectic cacophony of noise, colour and deafening barter. The spectacular Jama Masjid Mosque (I have to don a flowery hospital type robe to cover myself up before I’m allowed in) is the largest in India. It was built by Shah Jahan.

Next, a minor kerfuffle as Rafeequi abandons us, amidst remonstrations. He says that only a morning tour is included. If we want to see anything else here we can do it ourselves. He won't take us in the Red Fort, even though we have been to the Drum House (Naubat Khana), at the entrance. Scottish Ken takes over, with his map, and we navigate back to the Red Fort through the bazaar, without getting lost too many times. The Red Fort was the home of the Mogul emperors, when Sha Jahan moved the capital from Agra to Delhi.

Time to do some exploring on my own. You can't miss the gargantuan, bustling and impressive Shri Laxmi Narayan Hindu Temple (Birla Mandir). Laxminarayan refers to Vishnu, , also known as Narayan, when he is with his consort Lakshmi. And then a complete contrast with the serenely beautiful Bahai Lotus Temple.

And another festival to celebrate. It’s Diwali when I first arrive and firecrackers and loud parties keep us all awake, well into the small hours.

Toy Train to Shimla

More trains – this time  to Kalka, just to the north of Chandigarh. There are small mice running up and down the carriage, feeding on biscuit crumbs, strewn under the metal seats. From here we transfer to a narrow gauge track and continue to Shimla on the legendary 'Toy Train' (Shimla and the train were made famous in the TV series Indian Summers). Shimla is where the British went to the mountains to escape the heat. The train negotiates a meandering journey of some 93 kilometres, ascending over 1600 metres through 103 tunnels.

The stations are a dainty blue and white decorated with elephants. Locals try to sell us cookies and samosas at the stations. wave at us from the front carriages, as the train chugs round the many bends, and risk their lives hanging out of the windows to pose for photographs.

Shimla is pleasantly cool and much as expected. Views of snow capped mountains in the distance. The main square is known as Scandal Point, though no-one is sure if there's any truth in the various lurid explanations for the name. There's a monkey temple and the Vice-Roy's Lodge to visit. And there are shopping streets, signposted, Upper Mall, Middle Bazaar and Lower Bazaar. As the trip dossier says: ‘the mock Tudor architecture presents a quite surreal imitation of Old England, against the magnificent backdrop of the Himalaya’. The hotel is a little surreal  too. The swimming pool is full of rubble.

Amritsar, India

Finally, an afternoon train to the Sikh’s holy city of Amritsar in the Northern Punjab. Its magnificent Golden Temple has a dome, covered in over 700 kilograms of pure gold. Yet another festival - I’ve been very lucky - it’s the founder of Sikhism, Guru Nanak’s birthday. This is one of the holiest Sikh cities, home to the Sikh holy book, The Guru Granth Sahib. The entire work is read in 48 hours at the celebrations.

There are parades through the streets and the grounds of the temple are thronging with the bobbing orange heads of Sikhs on pilgrimage. The temple is strewn with lights and, despite all the visitors, and having been the scene of several historical outrages, is incredibly serene and welcoming. The largest kitchen in the world, attached to the temple, is also fascinating - all those volunteers preparing food and all those chapattis rolling off the machines.

Jalianwalabagh

Amritsar has not been without bloodshed. The memorial garden at Jalianwalabagh commemorates the 1919 massacre of Indian protestors by General Dyer. And there was another massacre in the temple itself, when Indira Gandhi sent the Indian army in to quell protests in 1984,

Wagah

A comedic interlude before I depart is the excursion to the Wagah Border with Pakistan to see the 'Flag Lowering' ceremony. The cockaded border guards for both India and Pakistan make a competitive and overly-dramatic display of closing the border gates each day. It’s like watching John Cleese at the Ministry of Silly Walks.

Read more about India here.

Now I'm going on to Nepal and Bhutan

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