What is the Capital of Bolivia?

  • The official capital is Sucre, the government is based in La Paz and the largest city is Santa Cruz de la Sierra

A Very Brief History of Bolivia

  • The country was once the centre of the ancient Tiwanaku Empire and from the fifteenth to the early sixteenth century it was ruled by the Incas. After the arrival of Pizarro and the Spanish conquistadors, Bolivia was subsumed within the Viceroyalty of Peru. Spain built its empire in great part upon the silver that was extracted from Bolivia's mines.
  • Independence was finally won, by Venezuelan Simón Bolívar, El Libertador, in 1825, after many years of war, (along with Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru).
  • Venezuela’s then-leader Antonio José de Sucre was given the choice of uniting Charcas (modern-day Bolivia) with either the United Provinces of Rio de la Plata or the newly formed Peru Republic or, to declare independence from Spain and go it alone.
  • Sucre chose the latter and named the new republic after Simón Bolívar.
  • More war followed, a Civil War and conflicts with all of its neighbours: Peru, Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay and Chile, at different times. Bolivia eventually lost control of several parts of its territory, including its access to the Pacific coastline, (to Chile in 1879). This loss is bitterly resented by the Bolivians. They say that the Chileans invaded at carnival, when everyone was drunk and that this was therefore totally unfair. They still, hopefully, maintain a navy and celebrate Sea Day annually.

Is Bolivia a Poor Country?

  • Though historically rich in mineral and energy resources, Bolivia is the poorest of South America's countries. Almost 40 percent of Bolivians live in extreme poverty.

Is Bolivia Safe to Visit?

  • There are the usual warnings about petty crime, travelling at night and avoiding con men, especially in La Paz. Intriguingly, the FCO also says this: 'Avoid prison tours. They are illegal and unsafe. There are no guarantees for your safety inside prison premises.'

Facts and Factoids

  • One third of the country is in the Andes, making Bolivia one of the highest countries in the world. Lake Titicaca, straddling the border between Peru and Bolivia, is the highest and largest navigable lake in the world. Hence the nickname, The Tibet of the Americas.
  • In 2009, President Evo Morales changed the country's name to the Plurinational State of Bolivia, to reflect the multiethnic nature of the population
  • The age at which you can vote, in Bolivia, depends on your marital status. If you are married, you can vote at the age of 18. However, if you’re single, you’ll need to wait until you reach 21. And voting is mandatory.
  • Bolivia has the only Bolivianite (ametrine) mine in the world
  • People dressed as zebras help children to cross the road (lollipop ladies)

What Language is Spoken in Bolivia?

  • Bolivia has over 30 official languages.
  • The most prominent indigenous languages include Quechua and Aymara, while Spanish is the most widely-spoken language in the country.

What To See in Bolivia?

  • Landlocked Bolivia is the highest, poorest and most isolated country in South America. It is also the cheapest and the most surprising.
  • La Paz is a reinvented city
  • The people are friendly and the scenery on the route from the Atacama, across the Altiplano and up to Uyuni (the largest salt deposit in the world) is absolutely astonishing. Surreal painted mountains, vivid lakes, colourful bubbling geysers, a rock city in the desert. Not to be missed.

I’ve flown out to Brazil from London overnight, along with a lady carrying a poodle in her handbag and several cats in wicker baskets. One escapes and they have to appeal for its owner to come and catch it, over the PA. Some members of the tour group are also on board. Candida is alone, but she’s being met by boyfriend Kurt, who’s been travelling in Peru and Chile. He’s waiting at the airport with a bottle of pisco sour and it’s the first time I’ve been inebriated before nine in the morning. We’re giggling in the back of the bus all through group leader Gabi’s introductions. I'm sure she's really looking forward to this tour now.

Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

I'm starting in Rio de Janeiro, Rio was founded in 1565 by the Portuguese, when it was the seat of the Captaincy of Rio de Janeiro, a domain of the Portuguese Empire. Then, in 1763, it became the capital of the State of Brazil, (still part of the Portuguese Empire).

Rio remains Brazil's most well known city and surely one of the most famous cities in the world with Copacana and Ipanema Beaches, (don’t leave your belongings unattended), views from the towering summit of Corcovado topped by the immense statue of Christ the Redeemer (too much traffic and too many people) and the cable car up to the huge Sugar Loaf Mountain, from where the late afternoon views of Rio across a scattering of hills and islands are breath-taking.

I also squeeze in the bright, but sad favelas (of City of God fame) and  a football match at the renowned Maracana Stadium.  Lower league  Fluminense are playing Santos and there is plenty of horn blowing and drum rolling, but  not many spectators. Football is the country's obsession. Brazil is the most successful international football team ever. They have won the FIFA World Cup five times – more than any other country – and are first in the all-time rankings.

There's also plenty to try in terms of food and drink. I've already sampled feijoada, the local bean and meat stew that is traditionally eaten on Sundays, along with pigs' ears, manioc, pork scratchings, greens and garlic and been to a buffet restaurant where you pay according to the weight of the food on your plate. And I've been to  several bars. Candida and Kurt are a bad influence and I’ve already learned to love the national drink, the caipirinha. A typical serving costs about 50 pence and is lethal. One is usually plenty. Kurt and Candida go one better than just getting drunk and participate in a mock wedding at one bar. The ring is a free gift.

A Brief History of Brazil

  • Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital of the empire was actually transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro (Because Napoleon was invading). In 1815, the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves was formed.
  • Independence followed, in 1822. Leaving the Empire of Brazil, Rio de Janeiro subsequently served as the capital of the independent monarchy, until 1889, and then as the capital of a republican Brazil until 1960 when the capital was transferred to Brasília.

Iguassu Falls (Poor Niagara), Brazil and Argentina

Next, Iguassu, home to one of the world’s largest waterfalls. and arguably the most spectacular. There's a story that when US First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt visited Iguassu Falls, in 1944, she is said to have exclaimed, "Poor Niagara!" At 1.7 miles wide, with 275 drops, Iguassu Falls are more spread out than Victoria Falls, but there are more tourists. The horseshoe shaped Devils Throat is the largest and most popular waterfall section, a curtain of 14 separate falls. The air is full  of spray, so decent photos aren’t easy, but the upside is plenty of rainbows. And, we view for over four hours, thrills, spills and soaked to the skin.

We follow trails. from the Brazilian side (smaller slice of the national park but better views of the larger Argentine Falls - 80% of them are in Argentina - and plenty of wildlife, like coatis, wandering around), the Argentinian side (many more trails and there’s a close up of the fitfully churning Devil's Throat at the top, where the water plunges over the drop, by navigating a series of catwalks) and  from the very bottom in a bobbing (even wetter) boat.

Facts and Factoids

  • Brazil - here come some superlatives: the largest country in both South America and Latin America, the world's fifth-largest country by area and the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language.
  • It borders every other South American nation except Ecuador and Chile, and makes up just under half the continent.
  • This is one of the most multicultural and ethnically diverse nations. It has more Roman Catholics than any other country (61% of the population). It is megadiverse ecologically, most notably containing the vast Amazon Basin, where processes like deforestation cause massive global concern. Brazil has a total of four million plant and animal species.
  • The Amazon River (mainly in Brazil) is the world’s largest by volume of water discharged.
  • Brazil has been the world’s largest exporter of coffee for more than 150 years.

Pantanal, Brazil

Via Sao Paula to Cuiaba and into the Pantanal. This is the world’s largest tropical wetland, straddling the borders of Brazil, Paraguay and Bolivia. It is home to over 1000 species of bird and 300 different mammals. The boat trips here, animal spotting in the remote wilderness, are my unexpected highlight, and I get to see capybara (great name), jabiru storks, howler and Capuchin monkeys, toucans, the striking hyacinth macaw, agouti, a coiled anaconda and numerous Jacare caiman. The locals seem oblivious to the latter and happily fish in the water right next to them, despite the wide-mouthed yawns and glistening teeth. There's a tame caiman (we're told), called Pandora, at our jungle lodge.

Piranha fishing is less exciting and not very productive, but I can enjoy the painted skies of the gorgeous sunset over the river. I’m on my usual challenge to find the most appalling souvenir and this is a rewarding hunting ground. There are stuffed piranhas (to compensate for the ones we didn’t catch) in fluorescent coloured striped gel at the airport, on our departure.

Manaus, Brazil

Manaus, in the heart of the Amazon basin, on the banks of the Negro River, has vast tracts of jungle stretching in all directions. Rubber made it South America’s richest city in the late 1800s and lured many wealthy Europeans to the high life. A quick visit to the extraordinary Grand Opera House, before we board the launch, to our stilted lodge. En route we pass the spot where the dark Negro runs alongside and then converges with the lighter brown, muddy Solimões River. This results in the stripy phenomenon called the “Meeting of the Waters.”

Amazon River

As we're so isolated I’ve stocked up on food I can eat, including a can of cashew nuts. The monkey who scrambles across the moored boats to meet us has obviously encountered these previously. Before I can protect my bag he has purloined my can and is perched high on a branch devouring them. He hasno difficulty with the ring pull. I could swear he’s laughing. The rest of the group certainly are.

To be honest, the much anticipated Amazon is an anti-climax after the Pantanal. It’s quiet and beautiful. We swim by the stilted lodge (no nasties here we’re assured) but there is little new to see. There’s a Caboclo village to visit to gawk at the ‘natives’, long muddy jungle walks and we go piranha fishing – again. This time the guide hauls out some baby caiman for us to admire. Much vaunted river dolphins scoot by. Most of us miss them.

I’ve decided I’m never sharing a room on a tour again. My roommate, German Anne, snores mightily, (deja vu) comes in late and puts all the lights on, and insists on setting the alarm at least 90 minutes before we need to leave in the morning, so she can prink.

Salvador, Brazil

Our last stop is Salvador (Saviour), now the capital of the state of Bahia, It was founded, by the Portuguese settlers, in 1549, initially considered to be the nation's capital, before Rio was deemed to be more practical. It is one of Brazil's most historic cities and still the centre of Brazilian Catholicism.

I read that 'The Pelourinho area, the Portuguese colonial legacy, is regarded as the most important collection of seventeenth-eighteenth century architecture in the whole of the Americas.' It’s a hotch-potch of narrow cobbled streets, gilded baroque churches, and spacious squares surrounded by mansions in need of restoration. 

Salvador's magnificent setting and soaring cliffs protect the bay. So, this is one of the most sheltered harbours on the eastern coast of the Americas. The city has a predominantly African feel. This is not surprising as most of the inhabitants are of African descent (working sugar cane and tobacco plantations); there is a real vibe and some incredibly flamboyant costumes. Bruce and Laurie in the group pose against a cut out for photos and invite me to Fort Lauderdale.

Lima, The Capital of Peru

Elaine and I start in Lima, the capital city of Peru, founded by Francisco Pizarro. Nowadays, it’s touted as a worthwhile and safe visit, but it wasn’t then and there’s a swift departure. The buses are efficient and comfortable and even show movies. Well, one. We watch Analyse This six times.

Paracas and the Islas Ballestes

First, Paracas, on the edge of the costa desert, for the Islas Ballestes and the giant sand dunes. The former are said to be a must see on any Peruvian itinerary, though true to form on such occasions the sea is misty and the islands smelly, due to the huge heaps of guano, once a source of huge profit to the country. Nevertheless, seals and quantities of sea birds are discernible.

And we don’t have to walk far to see the dunes. They tower over the artificial lakes around the hotel. Dune bashing is on offer, if you are so inclined.

The Nazca Lines

Next, the mysterious Nazca Lines. I’ve been obsessed with these ever since I saw the film Chariots of the Gods. Von Daniken believed that the only plausible explanation for this network of giant desert etchings is that they were created by aliens. You can only properly view the geometric figures, animal and plant drawings, from the air.

A small plane flight has been booked for us, but there are only four places and I’m elbowed into the middle of the back seat by a very aggressive German. We’ve been warned that the plane banks steeply to get good views and there are plenty of thermals with the hot air too. The German is soon throwing up badly, proving that there is a God after all. (Or an alien). And one of the pilots takes pity on me and borrows my camera. That explains how I got some pictures, though no-one so far has come up with a a better solution to the origins of the lines. And Von Daniken's is a fascinating theory....

Facts and Factoids

  • Peru is divided into three regions: the costa, or arid coastal plain, the sierra, which encompasses the Andes and the Altiplano plateau and the selva, the jungle of the Amazon rainforest that extends east. The Amazon covers 60% of the country, the second-largest proportion of the Amazon rainforest after Brazil, leading to rich bio-diversity.
  • Peru has a multi-ethnic population of over 31 million, which includes Amerindians, Europeans, Africans and Asians. The main spoken language is Spanish.
  • The potato is native to southern Peru and today, there are over 3,000 varieties grown in the country. The Peruvians have a patriotic saying: “Soy mas Peruano que la papa” (I am more Peruvian than the potato).
  • Peruvians celebrate New Year’s Eve by giving yellow underpants as presents, to bring good luck in the coming year. It is traditional to wear them inside out (underneath clothing) during the day, then flip them around at the stroke of midnight.

Cuzco, Peru

Cuzco and Machu Picchu are almost obligatory on a trip to Peru. Warding off altitude sickness, here in the high Andes, is the first challenge. There are baskets of coca leaves scattered around our hotel; I’m not sure if they’re working, but they make my tongue go very numb. Cuzco is a tourist hub and trekking mecca, the South American Kathmandu, a gorgeous maze of red roofed houses ringed by mountains.

We take a bus for a day trip to the Sacred Valley for Pisaq market, Pisaq ruins and Ollantaytambo fortress. Inca temples, hewn out of stone, hog priceless views. The famous market is crammed with bright woven goods and woollen ponchos. They aren’t cheap, but it takes up to six months to spin, dye, and weave a traditional Peruvian poncho. Peruvians generally receive one poncho upon becoming an adult and it is expected to last a lifetime. (Nearly every weaving technique known today was invented by Peruvians – and all of them were in use before 3000 B.C.) The local people are equally colourful, with their high cheekbones, lampshade hats and cautious smiles.

The Alpacas of Peru

We also have our first encounters with alpacas. Three-quarters of the world’s alpaca population lives in Peru and the proud Peruvians decorate them like dolls, with tasselled striped coats and woolly ribbons in their ears. They’re so cute, and look deceptively so much friendlier than their larger llama cousins, that it’s hard to decide whether they or their owners are the most photogenic. The Peruvians exploit this knowledge, to their best advantage, and it’s hard to begrudge payment for such appealing pictures. Despite this, the national animal is the smaller wild vicuña. (Alpacas are descended from vicuñas and llamas from guanacos. Vicuñas come in 22 natural colours and their wool is considered to be the world’s most luxurious fabric.)

A Brief History of Peru

  • The history of Peru spans 15 millennia, and Peru's coast was home to the Norte Chico civilization, the oldest civilization in the Americas and one of the six cradles of civilization in the world.
  • But Peru’s ancient Inca civilisation is the most well known. It was the biggest and most complex in pre-Columbian America, (larger than the Roman Empire) and included 24,855 miles  of roads at its peak. That’s almost enough to stretch around the Earth itself. It relied on a network of chasquis (runners) to keep the kingdom connected.
  • The first census was created by the Incas. They had no formal system of writing, and so developed a system of record-keeping using different coloured knots called “quipus” made from wool or cotton strings. Their empire was brutally brought to an end by the greedy Spaniards, with conquistador Pizarro breaking his word to the emperor, Atahualpa, after Atahualpa had kept his end of the bargain and filled a chamber with gold.
  • Peru has rarely been politically stable since it won its independence, with the aid of Bolivar.

Machu Picchu

Then it’s a train for an overnight stay in fabled Machu Picchu. This, most famous of Incan ruins, was (re)discovered by American explorer Hiram Bingham in 1911. I wrote an essay on the Incas at school when I was twelve and I’m dredging my memory. It’s not that difficult to recover the facts - it’s a fascinating and frightening story.

Exploring Machu Picchu

Today’s Machu Picchu has no echo of this violence, surrounded by enchanting white tipped mountain walls. The Andes are truly stunning. Machu Picchu is at its best early morning and evening, when the day trippers have left. We walk backwards up the last part of the Inca Trail for the famed view through the Sun Gate. We haven’t contemplated actually walking the trail. It’s been deemed too dangerous over recent years, because of the Shining Path protest raids and besides, I’ve only recently had glandular fever and I understand it’s a very tough trek.

Sitting on a stone bench at Machu Picchu, ringed by mountain walls, the electric charge is amazing, energising and wonderful. I don’t want to come down. The staircase descent goes on on for ever, but is preferable to the bus careering round the hairpin bends. The railroad is built right up the main street of the town, Agua Caliente below. You can lean out of the carriage, as the whistle blares its warning and do your shopping.

Food, Drink and Adventures in Peru

Criss-crossing the mountains on buses and trains and sampling the ceviche and pisco (Peru's national beverage, a brandy made from grapes - it's also claimed by Chile) in the Cuzco tavernas, we keep meeting the same people, ships in the night. One couple, who had better remain nameless, are working at the same university. Only he is married to someone else and his wife doesn't know about their relationship - yet. We arrange to meet for a final meal to drink pisco and sample the native delicacy, guinea pig (these are farmed by most of the locals).

I have to pass on the food. The guinea pigs are grilled whole, skewered flat, heads attached, complete with little paws pointing upwards in supplication. The pisco sours are much more welcome, however. And I have an empty stomach. I fall instantly in love with a bearded American, Jay, who joins us. He professes to feel the same. It is unfortunate that he is just moving into a shared place with his girlfriend in California, but this is so different and amazing, he promises that he will stay in touch. We can’t let this go, he will come and see me very soon. He writes his email address carefully on a paper napkin and I, just as carefully, put it away. Jaybird - transitory flash of iridescence. Reader, I never hear from him again.

Lake Titicaca

Our last spectacular rail journey takes us south, through the mountains to Lake Titicaca. At 12,507 feet above sea level this is the world’s highest navigable lake and coca leaves are still required. It’s a fitting end to a magical journey across Peru, with its reed boats, brightly costumed inhabitants and curious lakeside rituals. On the far side, Bolivia awaits.

Newsletter Subscription

Stay in touch. Get travel tips, updates on my latest adventures and posts on out of the way places, straight to your Inbox.

I keep your data private and only share your data with third parties that make this service possible. Privacy Policy. No spam I promise. Unsubscribe any time.